Industrial Disputes Act, 1947

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Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 provides for peaceful resolution of disputes and to promote harmonious relation between employers and workers. Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 extends to the whole of India and it came into force on 1st April, 1947

BACKGROUND
The first legal enactment for industrial disputes was the Employers’ and Workmen’s Disputes Act, 1860 however it was very much against the workers and due to this reason it was replaced by the Trade Disputes Act, 1929. During Second World War Rule 81-A of the Defence of India Rules was enacted to provide speedy remedies for industrial dispute.

OBJECTIVE
In case of Workmen of Dimakuchi Tea Estate v. Dimakuchi Tea Estate, Supreme court held that following are the objectives of the act.
Promotion of measures of securing and preserving amity and good relations between the employer and workmen.
Investigation and settlement of industrial disputes between employers and employers, employers and workmen, or workmen and workmen with a right of representation by registered trade union or federation of trade unions or an association of employers or a federation of associations of employers.
Prevention of illegal strikes and lock-outs.
Relief to workmen in the matter of lay-off and retrenchment.
Promotion of collective bargaining

INDUSTRY 
As definition of Industry in Section 2(j) of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 and other leading cases following are considered as industry.

In case of Corpn. of City of Nagpur v. Employees Departments of the municipality were held, to be “industry” 
Tax 
Public Conveyance
Fire Brigade 
Lighting 
Water Works 
City Engineers (
Enforcement (Encroachment) (
Sewerage 
Health 
Market 
Public Gardens 
Education 
Printing Press 
Building and 
General administration

Following were also held as industry in various cases:
State Hospital: State of Bombay V/s Hospital Mazdoor Sabha 
Ayurvedic Pharmacy and Hospital Bangalore : Lalit Hari Ayurvedic College Pharmacy V/s Workers Union
Large clubs : Water Supply case
Management of a private educational institution: R.C.K. Union v. Rajkumar College
Co-operative Societies
Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce
Company carrying on agricultural operations
Khadi Gramodyog Sangh
Indian Navy Sailors Home
Panchayat Samiti
Public Health Department of the State Government
Forest Department of Govt
Zoo
Primary Health Centres
Indian Institute of Petroleum 
Rajasthan Co-operative Credit  Institutions Cadre Authority 
A trust for promoting religious, social and educational life but also undertaking commercial activities
M.P. Khadi and Village Industries Board
Housing board
Dock Labour Board

Following are not held Industry
Posts and Telegraphs Department ; Union of India V/s Labour Court: 
Telecom Deptt : Bombay Telephones Canteen Employees Association V/s Union of India: 
Central Institute of Fisheries : P. Bose V/s Director, C.I.F.
Construction and maintenance of National and State Highways : State of Punjab V/s Kuldip Singh
Trade Unions : RMS V/s K.B. Wagh

These online MCQ Mock tests and MCQ questions includes all main concepts of the chapter (The Industrial Employment (Industrial Disputes Act, 1947) in CS Executive Module II Industrial, Labour and General Law (ILGL MCQ based OMR) Exam.

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